When writing texts and using other people’s thoughts and ideas from books, articles and websites, you must reference them in order for the reader to be able to find the original. There are many different rules for how to do this. On this page we provide general tips on how to make proper references and we also direct you to sites with more information.

Copying references

In the majority of our databases it is possible to create a reference in the most common styles (Harvard, Oxford etc.). This is an easy way if you want to reference a book or article. Check for links such as export or cite.

Search for the book you want to reference and click on the title. Under the information on the book you will find the button “Create reference”. 

Search in LIBRIS

Click on the title of the book or article. Select the tool “Cite” that appears on the right side of the page. Here you can select the style and copy the reference.

For some references in Libsearch, the author information is written incorrectly when you create a reference, so check that it is correct. Are all names included? Are the names correct?  This applies in particular to the library’s books and the database Swepub.

Search in Libsearch


In Google Scholar, click on the Cite in the search results list and you can then copy the reference.

Different reference styles – guides

At Malmö University, variations of the following styles are among those used:

Harvard is also called the Author-date system. 

Guide to Harvard from Umeå University

APA is a specific variation of the Harvard style.

Reference guide for APA

Vancouver, where references in the text are indicated by a number in parentheses, is often used in medicine and biomedicine. 

Guide to Vancouver from Karolinska Institutet University Library


Oxford is a referencing style where you enter the reference in text using a footnote. 

Guide to Oxford from Uppsala University Library

The IEEE system. Developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and used by engineers, particularly in the field of computer and electrical engineering.

Guide to the IEEE system from Murdoch University

Programs for reference management - EndNote

If you are writing multiple or longer texts, you can use programs to gather your references. The programs can be linked to Office Word, for example, so that you can insert the references in your text.

Malmö University holds a campus license on EndNote, which means that all students and staff have free access.

Get started with EndNote using our guide